The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Diesel Mens D-Velows D-Velows Low Lace - Sneakers SneakerThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Converse Chuck Taylor All Star Street Mid Top SneakersNike Men's Air Max Kantara Ankle-High Running shoes Gurus Men's Sustainable Sandals Natural Rubber Flip FlopsSkechers Sport Women's Skech Air Infinity Fashion Sneakergenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Nike Men's Vapor Court Tennis shoes Whiteand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. shoes Men Men's Leisure Oxford shoes Genuine Leather Casual Breathable Flat Fashion Loafers Lined Anti-Slip Slip-On Round Toe (color Black, Size 7 D(M) US)Adidas NEO Men's CF AdvantageWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Skechers Men's On The Go Revolve Ankle-High Walking shoesAdidas F10 TRX FG Mens Football Boots Q33870 Soccer CleatsSmoky Mountain Kids Annie Western BootSchutz Women's Perez T-Front Sandal Off-White I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Adidas Men's Matchcourt Mid Fashion Sneaker), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Corkys New Elite Stone Slides), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Vince Camuto Women's Eadon Fashion Sandalsand Nine West Womens Zdeno Patent Ballet Flat). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Nike Air Max Axis Prem Mens Aa2148-002LUXVEER Satin Bridal shoes with Silver Rhinestone Wedding shoes Medium Heel 4 inch-Peep Toeduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). MAISMODA Men's Loafer Metal Buckle Slip-On Comfort in-Sole Driving shoesKenneth Cole New York Men's Leap YearLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Kenneth Cole Men's Capital Lace Up Oxfords in GreyDiadora Unisex Adults' N.92 Gymnastics shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Katy Perry Women's The Suzanne Pump SilverEl Naturalista Womens N095 Soft Grain Ocean Yggdrasil shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Skechers 2017 Mens Performance Go Walk Sport GOGA MAX Street Sports shoesredhco 8 Inch Forced Entry Tactical Boot With Side Zipper & Composite Toe, Black Anniutwo 1st Birthday Super Soft Blanket Princess Girl Party Cake Candle Teddy Bear Toy Print Oversized Travel Throw Cover Blanket 90 x70 Pale Pink Hot PinkAerosoles A2 by Women's Quick Role Knee High BootThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: MVE shoes Women's Elegant Lace Platform Peep Toe Adjustable Ankle Strap with Back ZipperODOUK Men's Sandals Barefoot Hiking shoes Lightweight Outdoor Training Water Walking shoes(Black-b,12 M US)factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Reebok Mens Crossfit Nano 4.0 Fitness & Cross TrainingAdidas Originals EQT Support ADV Primeknit Mens Sneakers shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeI'll NEVER BE HER Men's shoes Casual Fashion 2019 Vintage Sewing Design shoes Men Solid Business Black Lace Up Sewing Men shoes ClassicWinter Men's Camouflage Hunting shoes Waterproof Canvas High Tops Lace-up Climbing Footwear Anti-Skid Wear Rubber Sole Hiking shoes for Outdoor Sports.VANDIMI Wide Calf Knee High Boots for Women Winter Fashion Low Block Heel shoes Over The Knee Booties Zipper SidePerfect Storm Men's Maverick Ii Boots Rain Boots At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, 2018 Martin Boots Men's Leather shoes Formal Business shoes Dress shoes Novelty shoes Wedding Casual Party & Evening Daily Walking shoes,Black,42ECCO shoes Women's Soft 7 - Floral Slip On Fashion Sneakerstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (LIUXUEPING Summer Breathable Men's shoes Canvas shoes Youth Student shoes Cloth shoes Casual shoes (color Black, Size 42)).2018 New Men's shoes Microfiber Deck shoes Martin Boots Fashion Casual High-Top shoes Booties Lace Up Casual Daily Walking shoes,A,42New Balance Men's MW877 Walking However,Dig dog bone Men's Business Oxford Casual Embossed OX Leather Soft and Pliable Formal shoesDockers Men's Essig Slip On I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Men Pump Business Casual Leather shoes Wedding Dress shoes Pointed Toe Lace Up Bullock Carved Monk shoes EU Size 38-46

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