The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Asics Gel Solution Speed 3 Ltd. Ed. NYC Women's Tennis shoes White Black PinkThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Clarks Womens Glick Harvest FlatNine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Pointed Toe Chunky Heel Formal Handmade Business Classic Ankle Boots Hoka ONE ONE Women's Challenger ATR 4 Running shoesMetrocharm MC138 Men's Lace up Casual Fashion Ankle Chukka Bootsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Kenneth Cole New York Men's Double The Fun II Hightop Sneakerand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Nine West Womens Jerana French Navy 7.5 MLUSTHAVE Women's Haley Over The Knee Pull On Boot - Drawstring Back Comfort Block Chunky Heel Pointy Round ToeWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,DIMAOLV Men's shoes Synthetic Microfiber PU Tulle Spring Summer Fall Comfort Sneakers for Casual Outdoor White Black Red,Black,US10 EU43 UK9 CN44Original S.W.A.T. Men's Classic 6 Inch Side-Zip Military and Tactical BootAmelia Women's Leather Snow BootsSkechers Go Outdoors Ultra Adventure Womens Hiking Sneakers shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Women's Mephisto, Safo Comfort Sandal), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Munro Womens Billee Closed Toe Classic Pumps), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Women's Vintage Ankle Boots Pleated Chelsea Boots Women's Leather Bootiesand Sam Edelman Womens Tristan Pumps). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Nine West Women's Chandice Fashion BootFRAU - Firenze black - 73M5during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Dig dog bone Men's Fashion Middle-Calf Boots Wax PU Leather High Buckle Decoration Side Zipper Lacing Up shoesWomen's Ankle Boots Winter Snow Boots Warm Platform shoes Leather Boots Comfort Loafers & Slip-Ons Brown Black (color Brown, Size 36)Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Men's Platform shoes Spring Fall Comfort Sneakers Walking shoes,Running shoes,Flat Loafers,Comfort High-Top Sneakers,Casual Travel,Rounded Toe,B,39The Flexx Charlee Womens Cognac Leather Matt SandalAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Reebok Work Women's Anomar IB451 Construction BootASICS Men's Gel-Forte Running shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Nine West Women's Manque2-A in BeryL@YC Women Flat shoes Summer Dermis Flat with Sandals Diamond Size Code Word Buckle Clarks Womens Ashland Bubble LoaferNine Seven Cow Leather Women's Round Toe Flat Heel Style Zipper Handmade Riding Knee High BootsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Kenneth Cole New York Men's Brand Tour Pb Fashion SneakerVANS men's shoes low sneakers VN0A3DZ3VTF1 STYLE 36factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.T-JULY Women's Fashion Genuine Leather Thick Heel Boots Ankle Boots for Girls Martin Boots Ladies Girls shoesECCO Mens Melbourne Chukka Ankle Boot There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeNine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Square Toe Chunky Heel Back Zip Handmade Pearls Ankle BootsGFP Men's Leather shoes Pointed Rubber Sole shoes Business Class New Mens shoes Spring Fall Leather shoes Wedding Leather shoes.Nike Women's Vandal High LXFemale Sandals with shoes Heel shoes with Rough Summer (color RED, Size 36) At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, [Thin Cotton Optional] Casual shoes Men's shoes Winter New Outdoor Sports shoes Trend shoes Men's Low to Help Students shoes (color Black, Size 40)Nine Seven Women's Suede Leather Round Toe Low Chunky Heel Handmade Ankle Elastic Side Comfortable Ankle Bootstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Garyline Flower Block Sandals for Women,Black Platform Heel Thin Heel Sandals).Demonia Women's Sinister-301 Platform Knee Boot BlackMIA Women's Cristi Leather Fringe Platform Sandal However,Geox Men's Symbol Leather Slip-On shoes shoesNine Seven Genuine Leather Womens Chunky Heel Platform Black Ankle Boot I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Women's Ankle Boots, Leather Pointed High Heel Boots Rough High Heels Fashion Martin Boots Wedding Party & Evening Formal shoes (color Green, Size 34)

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